|Other names||The Spoils of War|
|No. of Rukus||10|
|No. of verses||75|
The Spoils (Arabic: ٱلأنفال, al-ʾanfāl; aka Spoils of War, Earnings, Savings, Profits) is the eighth chapter (sūrah) of the Quran, with 75 verses (āyāt). Regarding the timing and contextual background of the revelation (asbāb al-nuzūl), it is a "Medinan surah", completed after the Battle of Badr. It forms a pair with the next surah, At-Tawba.
According to the eminent Muslim philospher Abul A'la Maududi, the chapter was probably revealed in 2 A. H. after the Battle of Badr, the first defensive clash between Meccans and Muslim people of Medina after they fled from persecution in Mecca . As it contains an extensive point-by-point survey of the Battle, it gives the idea that most presumably it was uncovered at very much the same time. Yet, it is additionally conceivable that a portion of the verse concerning the issues emerging because of this Battle may have been uncovered later and joined at the best possible spots to make it a consistent entirety.
- 1 Spoils belong to God and his Apostle
- 2-4 True believers and their future reward
- 5-6 Muslims reproved for distrusting their Prophet
- 7 God gives the Muslims either the Quraish or their caravan
- 8 The victory of Badr a seal to Islam
- 9 Angelic aid vouchsafed to Muhammad
- 10-11 The Muslims refreshed and comforted before the battle
- 12 The angels enjoined to comfort the faithful by destroying the infidel Quraish
- 13-14 Infidels are doomed to punishment here and hereafter
- 15-16 Muslims are never to turn their backs on the infidels on pain of hell-fire
- 17-18 The victory of Badr a miracle
- 19 The Quraish are warned against further warfare with the Muslims
- 20-21 Muslims exhorted to steadfastness in faith
- 22-23 Infidels compared to deaf and dumb brutes
- 24 Believers are to submit themselves to God and his Apostle
- 25-28 They are warned against civil strife, deception, and treachery
- 29 God's favour to true believers
- 30 Plots against Muhammad frustrated by God
- 31 The infidels liken the Quran to fables
- 32-33 The Quraish were protected from deserved punishment by Muhammad's presence among them
- 34-38 The idolaters of Mecca rebuked and threatened
- 39 An amnesty offered to the Quraish
- 40 Impenitent idolaters to be extirpated from the earth
- 41 How the spoils of war are to be divided
- 42-43 The Muslims were led by God to fight at Badr to attest the truth of Islam
- 44 The Muslims encouraged, and the infidels lured to destruction, by each seeing the other to be few in number
- 45-46 Believers exhorted to obedience
- 47 Believers warned against impious vainglory
- 48 The devil deserts the Quraish at Badr
- 49-51 The fate of hypocrites
- 52-54 Their doom like that of Pharaoh and his people
- 55 The worst of beasts are the infidels
- 56-58 Treachery to be met with its like
- 59 God is against the infidels
- 60 The Muslims excited to war against unbelievers
- 61 Condition of peace with unbelievers
- 62-64 The miracle of Arab union
- 65-66 God with the Prophet and the Muslims in warring for the faith
- 67-69 Muslims reproved for accepting ransom for the captives taken at Badr
- 70-71 Captive Quraish exhorted to accept Islam, and warned against deception
- 72-73 The brotherhood of Muslims (and its obligatory related to it), fact that disbelievers are helpers of one another, and effect for Muslims if they don't help another.
- 74 The brotherhood of the Ansárs and Muháj Jirín
- 75 The hereditary rights of blood-relations re-established
This subject of this Surah can be considered to be the issue of Jihad.
|1-41||This portion manages the issues of the "Spoils of War". The Quran says that these are not the crown jewels of war but rather the "Bounties of Allah" and demonstrates this by indicating that the triumph at Badr (and in every single other fight, as well,) was won by His aid and not by the endeavors of the Muslims. It likewise proclaims in ayat 40 that the war point of the Muslims ought to be to take out every single troublesome condition for the foundation of Islam and not to pick up ruins. Additionally, the spoils, being the bounties of God, have a place with Allah and His Messenger and only they are qualified to distribute them. At that point in the wake of molding the Muslims to acknowledge these things, the different shares have been assigned in ayat 41.|
|41-54||The Battle of Badr was appointed by Allah so Islam should triumph over "ignorance". The exercise from this is the Muslims should trust in God and set themselves up for war and ought not be bewildered by Satan as the disbelievers were.|
|55-59||Sanctity of treaties has been ordered and the Muslims instructed to watch them as long as the other party does not break them.|
|60-66||The Muslims ought to consistently be set up for war on each front, yet ought to be prepared to make harmony if the other party is slanted towards it.|
|67-71||In these ayaat, guidelines about detainees of war have been given.|
|72-75||To keep the Muslims consolidated against their adversaries, they have been instructed to have welcoming relations with each other.|
The Surah is named Al-Anfal (The Bounties) from the first ayat. The word utilized in the ayat is الْأَنفَالِ. The word نفل alludes to what is given as an extra sum past what is required. A very subtle perspective is covered in employing this word: the reward of undertaking jihad for God is permanently saved with God. Other than this prize, the spoils of war that are picked up from the Unbelievers are an extra offer for such individuals; before the Day of Judgment, the Almighty awards these to the participants of the war.
The surah articulates general standards of war (one part of Jihad) and harmony while checking on the Battle of Badr and uses them for the ethical preparation of the Muslims. It is this incredible Battle that has been evaluated right now. In any case, let it be noticed that in certain regards this survey is very unique concerning the audits that are typically made by the common commandants after an extraordinary triumph. Rather than bragging over the triumph, the ethical shortcomings that had risen to the top in that endeavor have been called attention to with the goal that the Muslims should attempt their best to change themselves. It has been put forth for them that the triumph was because of the accomplishment of Allah preferably - over to their valor and dauntlessness so the Muslims ought to figure out how to depend on Him and obey Allah and His Messenger alone. The ethical exercise of the contention between the Truth and falsehood has been articulated and the characteristics which lead to achievement in a contention have been clarified. At that point, the Surah addresses the mushriks and the unbelievers. It additionally gives guidelines for the spoils of war. The Muslims have been advised not to view these as their privilege however as an abundance from Allah. Along these lines, they ought to acknowledge with appreciation the offer that is allowed to them out of it and enthusiastically acquiesce to the offer which Allah separates for His motivation and the assistance of the penniless. At that point, it likewise gives typical directions concerning the laws of harmony and war as these were highly needed to be clarified at the phase which the Islamic Movement had entered. It charged that the Muslims should distance from the ways of "ignorance" in harmony and war and in this way ought to set up their ethical predominance on the planet. It additionally implied, to exhibit to the world in genuine useful life the ethical quality which it had been lecturing the world from the earliest starting point of Islam and had been charging that down to earth life ought to be founded on the equivalent. It additionally expresses a few articles of the Islamic Constitution which help separate the status of the Muslims living inside the restrictions of Dar-ul-Islam (the Abode of Islam) from that of the Muslims living past its cutoff points.
Verse 8:12 (Remember) when your Lord revealed to the angels, "Verily, I am with you, so keep firm those who have believed. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who have disbelieved, so strike them over the necks, and smite over all their fingers and toes.': Verse 8:12
Tafsir Ibn Kathir says this means, "you -- angels -- support the believers, strengthen their (battle) front against their enemies, thus, implementing My command to you. I will cast fear, disgrace and humiliation over those who defied My command and denied My Messenger".: Verse 8:12
Muhammad al-Baqir narrates in hadith that:
Know that whatever property you may gain, one fifth belongs to God, the Messenger, for near relatives and the orphans, the needy, and the [stranded] traveler
which refers to the relatives of the Messenger of Allah. "Al-Khums (one fifth) belongs to Allah, the Messenger and to us (his Ahl al-Bayt)". One source states that Ubay ibn Khalaf was ransomed after Badr, but was killed by Muslims with a spear in the Battle of Uhud (625 CE). Verse [Quran 8:17] was revealed in this occasion.
Verses 8:42 and 8:47
The Battle of Badr is also the subject of this Surah, which details military conduct and operations. Though the Surah does not name Badr, it describes the battle several times:
Remember ye were on the hither side of the valley, and they on the farther side, and the caravan on lower ground than ye. Even if ye had made a mutual appointment to meet, ye would certainly have failed in the appointment: But (thus ye met), that Allah might accomplish a matter. For to Allah do all questions go back (for decision). [Quran 8:42]
These verses highlighted both the chance encounter of the battle (both sides had blundered into each other) as well as the underestimation of both the size of the Meccan army by the Muslims and the fierceness of the Muslim army by the Meccans. The Meccan army was described in the second verses, and "Satan" may be referring to Amr ibn Hishām, who was hated by the Muslims and allegedly pushed for the battle repeatedly.
- George Sale translation
- Gerrans, S
- Ibn Kathir. "Tafsir Ibn Kathir (English): Surah Al Anfal". Quran 4 U. Tafsir. Retrieved 28 November 2019.
- Translation and commentary by Javed Ahmad Ghamidi
- Abul A'la Maududi - Tafhim-ul-Quran
- Mohammed, A Comprehensive Commentary on the Quran: Comprising Sale’s Translation and Preliminary Discourse, with Additional Notes and Emendations (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co., 1896). 4 vols.
- Muhammad Farooq-i-Azam Malik (translator), Al-Qur'an, the Guidance for Mankind - English with Arabic Text (Hardcover) ISBN 0-911119-80-9
- Al-Kulayni, Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ya’qub (2015). Kitab al-Kafi. South Huntington, NY: The Islamic Seminary Inc. ISBN 9780991430864.
- Umm `Umara Nasiba Bint Ka`B Al-Ans.Ariyya (Ra)